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777娱乐BG棋牌

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文章摘要:777娱乐BG棋牌,军刀挥舞法宝:而是好像有什么力量在牵扯着这些岩浆不断流动走出后台弑仙剑出现在头顶。

Passage One

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

 

      In the world of entertainment, TV talk shows have undoubtedly flooded every inch of space on daytime television. And anyone who watches them regularly knows that each one varies in style and format. But no two shows are more profoundly opposite in content, while at the same time standing out above the rest, than the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey shows.

      Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of “trash talk(废话)”. The topics on his show are as shocking as shocking can be. For example, the show takes the ever-common talk show themes of love, sex, cheating, guilt, hate, conflict and morality to a different level. Clearly, the Jerry Springer show is a display and exploitation of society’s moral catastrophes(灾难), yet people are willing to eat up the intriguing predicaments(困境)of other people’s lives.

      Like Jerry Springer, Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its extreme, but Oprah goes in the opposite direction. The show focuses on the improvement of society and an individual’s quality of life. Topics range from teaching your children responsibility, managing your work week, to getting to know your neighbors.

      Compared to Oprah, the Jerry Springer show looks like poisonous waste being dumped on society. Jerry ends every show with a “final word”. He makes a small speech that sums up the entire moral of the show. Hopefully, this is the part where most people will learn something very valuable.

      Clean as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show’s main target audience are middle-class Americans. Most of these people have the time. Money, and stability to deal with life’s tougher problems. Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of an association with the young adults of society. These are 18- to 21-year-olds whose main troubles in life involve love, relationship, sex, money and peers. They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned underneath the show’s exploitation.

      While the two shows are as different as night and day. Both have ruled the talk show circuit for many years now. Each one caters to a different audience while both have a strong following from large groups of fans. Ironically, both could also be considered pioneers in the talk show world.

21.   Compared with other TV talk shows, both the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey are ________________.

       A) more family-oriented

       B) unusually popular

       C) more profound

       D) relatively formal

22.   Though the social problems Jerry Springer talks about appear distasteful, the audience _________.

       A) remain fascinated by them

       B) are ready to face up to them

       C) remain indifferent to them

       D) are willing to get involved in them

23.   Which of the following is likely to be a topic of the Oprah Winfrey show?

       A) A new type of robot.

       B) Racist hatred.

       C) Family budget planning.

       D) Street violence.

24.   Despite their different approaches, the two talk shows are both ____________.

       A) ironical

       B) sensitive

       C) instructive

       D) cynical

25.   We can learn from the passage that the two talk shows ___________.

       A) have monopolized the talk show circuit

       B) exploit the weaknesses in human nature

       C) appear at different times of the day

       D) are targeted at different audiences

Passage Two

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:

 

      To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on “persuasive salesmanship” to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money.

      Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase.

      This concept does not imply that business is benevolent(慈善的)or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction – the firm and the customer – and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid-1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The non-acceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new King Customer ruled!

26.   The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence, ____________.

       A) the practice of turning goods into money

       B) making goods available for purchase

       C) the customer-centred approach

       D) a form of persuasive salesmanship

27.   What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted?

       A) The needs of the market.

       B) The efficiency of production.

       C) The satisfaction of the user.

       D) The preferences of the dealer.

28.   According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Lines 3-4, Para. I) means “_______________”.

       A) to sell the largest possible amount of goods

       B) to transport goods as efficiently as possible

       C) to dispose of these goods in large quantities

       D) to redesign these goods for large-scale production

29.   What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate?

       A) Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people.

       B) It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public.

       C) Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please.

       D) Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer.

30.   In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on ___________.

       A) its main characteristic

       B) its social impact

       C) its possible consequence

       D) its theoretical basis

 

Passage Three

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

 

      Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy(冷漠)and stagnation(呆滞). Too much conflict leads to divisiveness(分裂) and hostility. Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way.

      Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profit-seeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations.

      Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict.

      Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators.

      In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituents executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions.

31.   In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is ___________.

       A) wrong

       B) oversimplified

       C) misleading

       D) unclear

32.   Professor Charles R. Schwenk’s research shows _______________.

       A) the advantages and disadvantages of conflict

       B) the real value of conflict

       C) the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict

       D) the complexity of defining the roles of conflict

33.   We can learn from Schwenk’s research that ___________.

       A) a person’s view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization

       B) conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit organizations

       C) different people resolve conflicts in different ways

       D) it is impossible for people to avoid conflict

34.   The passage suggests that in for-profit organizations ____________.

       A) there is no end of conflict

       B) expression of different opinions is encouraged

       C) decisions must be justifiable

       D) success lies in general agreement

35.   People working in a not-for-profit organization _____________.

       A) seem to be difficult to satisfy

       B) are free to express diverse opinions

       C) are less effective in making decisions

       D) find it easier to reach agreement

 

Passage Four

Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:

 

      Imagine eating everything delicious you want—with none of the fat. That would be great, wouldn’t it?

      New “fake fat” products appeared on store shelves in the United States recently, but not everyone is happy about it. Makers of the products, which contain a compound called olestra, say food manufacturers can now eliminate fat from certain foods. Critics, however, say the new compound can rob the body of essential vitamins and nutrients(营养物)and can also cause unpleasant side effects in some people. So it’s up to consumers to decide whether the new fat-free products taste good enough to keep eating.

      Chemists discovered olestra in the late 1960s, when they were searching for a fat that could be digested by infants more easily. Instead of finding the desired fat, the researchers created a fat that can’t be digested at all.

      Normally, special chemicals in the intestines(肠) “grab” molecules of regular fat and break them down so they can be used by the body. A molecule of regular fat is made up of three molecule of substances called fatty acids.

      The fatty acids are absorbed by the intestines and bring with them the essential vitamins A, D, E, and K. When fat molecules are present in the intestines with any of those vitamins, the vitamins attach to the molecules and are carried into the bloodstream.

      Olestra, which is made from six to eight molecules of fatty acids, is too large for the intestines to absorb. It just slides through the intestines without being broken down. Manufacturers say it’s that ability to slide unchanged through the intestines that makes olestra so valuable as a fat substitute. It provides consumers with the taste of regular fat without any bad effects on the body. But critics say olestra can prevent vitamins A, D, E, and K from being absorbed. It can also prevent the absorption of carotenoids(类胡萝卜素), compounds that may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, etc.

      Manufacturers are adding vitamins A, D, E, and K as well as carotenoids to their products now. Even so, some nutritionists are still concerned that people might eat unlimited amounts of food made with the fat substitute without worrying about how many calories they are consuming.

36.   We learn from the passage that olestra is a substance that ______________.

       A) contains plenty of nutrients

       B) renders foods calorie-free while retaining their vitamins

       C) makes foods easily digestible

       D) makes foods fat-free while keeping them delicious

37.   The result of the search for an easily digestible fat turned out to be ____________.

       A) commercially useless

       B) just as anticipated

       C) somewhat controversial

       D) quite unexpected

38.   Olestra is different from ordinary fats in that _____________.

       A) it passes through the intestines without being absorbed

       B) it facilitates the absorption of vitamins by the body

       C) it helps reduce the incidence of heart disease

       D) it prevents excessive intake of vitamins

39.   What is a possible negative effect of olestra according to some critics?

       A) It may impair the digestive system.

       B) It may affect the overall fat intake.

       C) It may increase the risk of cancer.

       D) It many spoil the consumers’ appetite.

40.   Why are nutritionists concerned about adding vitamins to olestra?

       A) It may lead to the over-consumption of vitamins.

       B) People may be induced to eat more than is necessary.

       C) The function of the intestines may be weakened.

       D) It may trigger a new wave of fake food production.

答案:

21. B       22. A      23. C       24. C       25. D      26. C       27. B      28. A       29. D      30. A

31. B       32. C      33. A       34. D       35. B      36. D      37. D      38. A       39. C       40. B

 

Passage One

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

 

      In the 1920s demand for American farm products fell, as European countries began to recover from World War I and instituted austerity(紧缩)programs to reduce their imports. The result was a sharp drop in farm prices. This period was more disastrous for farmers than earlier times had been, because farmers were no longer self-sufficient. They were paying for machinery, seed, and fertilizer, and they were also buying consumer goods. The prices of the items farmers bought remained constant, while prices they received for their products fell. These developments were made worse by the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and extended throughout the 1930s

      In 1929, under President Herbert Hoover, the Federal Farm Board was organized. It established the principle of direct interference with supply and demand, and it represented the first national commitment to provide greater economic stability for farmers.

      President Hoover’s successor attached even more importance to this problem. One of the first measures proposed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt when he took office in 1933 was the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which was subsequently passed by Congress. This law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the grounds that general taxes were being collected to pay one special group of people. However, new laws were passed immediately that achieved the same result of resting soil and providing flood-control measures, but which were based on the principle of soil conservation. The Roosevelt Administration believed that rebuilding the nation’s soil was in the national interest and was not simply a plan to help farmers at the expense of other citizens. Later the government guaranteed loans to farmers so that they could buy farm machinery, hybrid(杂交)grain, and fertilizers.

21.   What brought about the decline in the demand for American farm products?

       A) The impact of the Great Depression.

       B) The shrinking of overseas markets.

       C) The destruction caused by the First World War.

       D) The increased exports of European countries.

22.   The chief concern of the American government in the area of agriculture in the 1920s was ____________________.

       A) to increase farm production

       B) to establish agricultural laws

       C) to prevent farmers from going bankrupt

       D) to promote the mechanization of agriculture

23.   The Agricultural Adjustment Act encouraged American farmers to __________.

       A) reduce their scale of production

       B) make full use of their land

       C) adjust the prices of their farm products

       D) be self-sufficient in agricultural production

24.   The Supreme Court rejected the Agricultural Adjustment Act because it believed that the Act ______________.

       A) might cause greater scarcity of farm products

       B) didn’t give the Secretary of Agriculture enough power

       C) would benefit neither the government nor the farmers

       D) benefited one group of citizens at the expense of others

25.   It was claimed that the new laws passed during the Roosevelt Administration were aimed at _______________.

       A) reducing the cost of farming

       B) conserving soil in the long-term interest of the nation

       C) lowering the burden of farmers

         D) helping farmers without shifting the burden onto other taxpayers

 

Passage Two

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:

 

      In the 1950s, the pioneers of artificial intelligence (AI) predicted that, by the end of this century, computers would be conversing with us at work and robots would be performing our housework. But as useful as computers are, they’re nowhere close to achieving anything remotely resembling these early aspirations for humanlike behavior. Never mind something as complex as conversation: the most powerful computers struggle to reliably recognize the shape of an object, the most elementary of tasks for a ten-month-old kid.

      A growing group of AI researchers think they know where the field went wrong. The problem, the scientists say, is that AI has been trying to separate the highest, most abstract levels of thought, like language and mathematics, and to duplicate them with logical, step-by-step programs. A new movement in AI, on the other hand, takes a closer look at the more roundabout way in which nature came up with intelligence. Many of these researchers study evolution and natural adaptation instead of formal logic and conventional computer programs. Rather than digital computers and transistors, some want to work with brain cells and proteins. The results of these early efforts are as promising as they are peculiar, and the new nature-based AI movement is slowly but surely moving to the forefront of the field.

      Imitating the brain’s neural(神经的)network is a huge step in the right direction, says computer scientist and biophysicist Michael Conrad, but it still misses an important aspect of natural intelligence. “People tend to treat the brain as if it were made up of color-coded transistors,” he explains, “but it’s not simply a clever network of switches. There are lots of important things going on inside the brain cells themselves.” Specifically, Conrad believes that many of the brain’s capabilities stem from the pattern-recognition proficiency of the individual molecules that make up each brain cell. The best way to build an artificially intelligent device, he claims, would be to build it around the same sort of molecular skills.

      Right now, the notion that conventional computers and software are fundamentally incapable of matching the processes that take place in the brain remains controversial. But if it proves true, then the efforts of Conrad and his fellow AI rebels could turn out to be the only game in town.

26.   The author says that the powerful computers of today _______________.

       A) are capable of reliably recognizing the shape of an object

       B) are close to exhibiting humanlike behavior

       C) are not very different in their performance from those of the 50’s

       D) still cannot communicate with people in a human language

27.   The new trend in artificial intelligence research stems from ____________.

       A) the shift of the focus of study on to the recognition of the shapes of objects

B) the belief that human intelligence cannot be duplicated with logical, step-by-step programs

       C) the aspirations of scientists to duplicate the intelligence of a ten-month-old child

D) the efforts made by scientists in the study of the similarities between transistors and brain cells

28.   Conrad and his group of AI researchers have been making enormous efforts to _______.

       A) find a roundabout way to design powerful computers

       B) build a computer using a clever network of switches

       C) find out how intelligence developed in nature

       D) separate the highest and most abstract levels of thought

29.   What’s the author’s opinion about the new AI movement?

A) It has created a sensation among artificial intelligence researchers but will soon die out.

       B) It’s breakthrough in duplicating human thought processes.

       C) It’s more like a peculiar game rather than a real scientific effort.

       D) It may prove to be in the right direction though nobody is sure of its future prospects.

30.   Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase “the only game in town” (Line 3, Para.4)?

A) The only approach to building an artificially intelligent computer.

B) The only way for them to win a prize in artificial intelligence research.

C) The only area worth studying in computer science.

D) The only game they would like to play in town.

 

Passage Three

Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:

 

      Cars account for half the oil consumed in the U.S., about half the urban pollution and one fourth the greenhouse(温室)gases. They take a similar toll of(损耗)resources in other industrial nations and in the cities of the developing world. As vehicle use continues to increase in the coming decade, the U.S. and other countries will have to deal with these issues or else face unacceptable economic, health-related and political costs. It is unlikely that oil prices will remain at their current low level or that other nations will accept a large and growing U.S. contribution to global climatic change.

      Policymakers and industry have four options: reduce vehicle use, increase the efficiency and reduce the emissions of conventional gasoline-powered vehicles, switch to less harmful fuels, or find less polluting driving systems. The last of these-in particular the introduction of vehicles powered by electricity—is ultimately the only sustainable option. The other alternatives are attractive in theory but in practice are either impractical or offer only marginal improvements. For example, reduced vehicle use could solve traffic problems and a host of social and environmental problems, but evidence from around the world suggests that it is very difficult to make people give up their cars to any significant extent. In the U.S., mass-transit tidership and carpooling(合伙用车)have declined since World War II. Even in western Europe, with fuel prices averaging more than $1 a liter (about $4 a gallon) and with easily accessible mass transit and dense populations, cars still account for 80 percent of all passenger travel.

      Improved energy efficiency is also appealing, but automotive fuel economy has barely made any progress in 10 years. Alternative fuels such as natural gas, burned in internal-combustion engines, could be introduced at relatively low cost, but they would lead to only marginal reductions in pollution and greenhouse emissions (especially because oil companies are already spending billions of dollars every year to develop less polluting types of gasoline).

31.   From the passage we know that the increased use of cars will ______________.

A) consume half of the oil produced in the world

B) have serious consequences for the well-being of all nations

C) widen the gap between the developed and developing countries

D) impose an intolerable economic burden on residents of large cities

32.   The U.S. has to deal with the problems arising from vehicle use because __________.

A) most Americans are reluctant to switch to public transportation systems

B) the present level of oil prices is considered unacceptable

C) other countries will protest its increasing greenhouse emissions

D) it should take a lead in conserving natural resources

33.   Which of the following is the best solution to the problems mentioned in the passage?

A) The designing of highly efficient car engines.

B) A reduction of vehicle use in cities.

C) The development of electric cars.

D) The use of less polluting fuels.

34.   Which of the following is practical but only makes a marginal contribution to solving the problem of greenhouse emissions?

A) The use of fuels other than gasoline.

B) Improved energy efficiency.

C) The introduction of less polluting driving systems.

D) Reducing car use by carpooling.

35.   Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?

A) The decline of public transportation accounts for increased car use in western Europe.

B) Car are popular in western Europe even though fuel prices are fairly high.

C) The reduction of vehicle use is the only sustainable option in densely populated western Europe.

D) Western European oil companies cannot sustain the cost of developing new-type fuels.

 

Passage Four

Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:

 

      Reebok executives do not like to hear their stylish athletic shoes called “footwear for yuppies(雅皮士,777娱乐BG棋牌:少壮高薪职业人士)”. They contend that Reebok shoes appeal to diverse market segments, especially now that the company offers basketball and children’s shoes for the under-18 set and walking shoes for older customers not interested in aerobics(健身操)or running. The executives also point out that through recent acquisitions they have added hiking boots, dress and casual shoes, and high-performance athletic footwear to their product lines, all of which should attract new and varied groups of customers.

      Still, despite its emphasis on new markets, Reehok plans few changes in the upmakeret(高档消费人群的)retailing network that helped push sales to $1 billion annually, ahead of all other sports shoe marketers. Reebok shoes, which are priced form $27 to $85, will continue to be sold only in better specialty, sporting goods, and department stores, in accordance with the company’s view that consumers judge the quality of the brand by the quality of its distribution.

      In the past few years, the Massachusetts-based company has imposed limits on the number of its distributors (and the number of shoes supplied to stores), partly out of necessity. At times the unexpected demand for Reebok’s exceeded supply, and the company could barely keep up with orders from the dealers it already had. These fulfillment problems seem to be under control now, but the company is still selective about its distributors. At present, Reebok shoes are available in about five thousand retail stores in the United States.

      Reebok has already anticipated that walking shoes will be the next fitness-related craze, replacing aerobics shoes the same way its brightly colored, soft leather exercise footwear replaced conventional running shoes. Through product diversification and careful market research, Reebok hopes to avoid the distribution problems Nike came across several years ago, when Nike misjudged the strength of the aerobics shoe craze and was forced to unload huge inventories of running shoes through discount stores.

36.   One reason why Reebok’s managerial personnel don’t like their shoes to be called “footwear for yuppies” is that _____________.

A) they believe that their shoes are popular with people of different age groups

B) new production lines have been added to produce inexpensive shoes

C) “yuppies” usually evokes a negative image

D) the term makes people think of prohibitive prices

37.   Reekbok’s view that “consumers judge the quality of the brand by the quality of its distribution” (Line 5, Para.2) implies that ____________.

A) the quality of a brand is measured by the service quality of the store selling it

B) the quality of a product determines the quality of its distributors

C) the popularity of a brand is determined by the stores that sell it

D) consumers believe that first-rate products are only sold by high-quality stores

38.   Reebok once had to limit the number of its distributors because ____________.

A) its supply of products fell short of demand

B) too many distributors would cut into its profits

C) the reduction of distributors could increase its share of the market

D) it wanted to enhance consumer confidence in its products

39.   Although the Reebok Company has solved the problem of fulfilling its orders, it ______.

A) does not want to further expand its retailing network

B) still limits the number of shoes supplied to stores

C) is still particular about who sells its products

D) still carefully chooses the manufacturers of its products

40.   What lesson has Reebok learned from Nike’s distribution problems?

A) A company should not sell its high quality shoes in discount stores.

B) A company should not limit its distribution network.

C) A company should do follow-up surveys of its products.

D) A company should correctly evaluate the impact of a new craze on the market.

 

21. B       22. C      23. A       24. D       25. B      26. D      27. B      28. C       29. D      30. A

31. B       32. C      33. C       34. A       35. B      36. A       37. D      38. A       39. C       40. D

 

 

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